Key factors

  • Yield in relation to acreage
  • Energy consumption (e.g., for processing, distillation, refrigeration)
  • Choice of container (glass bottle, can, plastic)
  • Transportation distance

Natural wine: YES

  • No pesticides, no synthetic elements
  • Mostly use of biodynamic wine practices
  • Wine is not clarified
  • But: packaging & transportation remain as strongest contributors to CO2 footprint
  • Most significant impact is on the consumer

Alcohol-free beer: YES

  • Less water is used during brewing process
  • Less waste created
  • But: potential adverse effects if artificial components are not handled correctly or require more energy
  • Can be seen as substitute of both regular beverages and beer